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KDE/KDE4

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KDE 4 是什麼?

KDE 4 是指 KDE 桌面環境的第四個主要版本。KDE 4.3 是穩定的版本,我們推薦大多數用戶使用。

現狀

openSUSE 穩定版本

  • KDE 4.3.4: The KDE:KDE4:STABLE:Desktop Build Service project contains KDE 4.3.4 packages as they are going to be released for openSUSE 11.2 online update. For installation/update instructions, see below. These packages are as current as possible and contain some openSUSE customizations. Further they contain patches that will be published as official online updates. Testing these packages and reporting issues on Novell's Bugzilla is highly appreciated.

KDE Factory 版本

為了下一個 openSUSE 版本,開發人員正在對 Factory 套件庫進行打包。這些套件經常更新,儘管他們被視為足夠穩定使用。它們有幾天可能包含 bug 和損壞。

  • KDE 4.3.x:KDE:KDE4:Factory:Desktop Build Service 專案包含KDE 4.3.1的套件包,可用於所有當前 openSUSE 版本。.
  • KDE 4.4.x: The KDE:KDE4:Factory:Desktop Build Service 專案包含 KDE 4.4.x 套件,是為下一個 openSUSE 版本開發,但可建構於目前所有的 openSUSE 版本。
Susemini.png
Version:
11.1
KDE 4.3 Live CD: KDE Four Live is a frequently updated Live CD containing recent KDE packages. The latest release includes KDE 4.3.2

不穩定的套件包

  • Trunk:KDE:KDE4:UNSTABLE:Desktop Build Service 專案包含開發中的 KDE 4.4。這是高度實驗性每週快照,可能無法正常運作。請小心使用,不要用於生產上。

Safety Advice

Our KDE4 packages use ~/.kde4 for storing settings and data. KDE 3 applications continue to use ~/.kde, even if used within KDE4 workplace.

If you have edited your .profile or .bashrc to change KDEHOME both KDE 3 and KDE 4 applications will share the same config files. This will enable KDE 4 applications to 'upgrade' config files they find but KDE 3 applications will probably be unable to use the updated files.


KDE 3 和 KDE 4

The KDE4 packages install into the /usr prefix, so KDE3 and KDE4 can safely be installed at the same time.

To prevent the accidental starting of KDE4 applications within a KDE3 session add at the top of /opt/kde3/bin/startkde

PATH=/opt/kde3/bin:${PATH/:\/opt\/kde3\/bin} export PATH

If you are using another window manager then adding this line to the .bashrc file should also load the correct applications.

This has been already done in the Factory and KDE:KDE3 packages which also contain some other minor patches for better co-existence with KDE4 (may need to run kbuildsycoca --noincremental once to become fully active).


安裝

穩定 KDE 專案(KDE 4.3.4)

KDE:KDE4:STABLE:DesktopBuild Service 專案提供 KDE 4.3.4 套件,他們為 openSUSE 11.2 而發布 。They may include pending online updates for 11.2.

點擊其中一個One Click Install 來安裝所需的套件包和加入套件庫。如果你遇到依賴不能得到解決的訊息,進入one-click 處理程式的「進階模式」,並開啟您的發行板的「標準」線上套件庫。

Susemini.png
Version:
11.2
Kde4-ymp.png

發人員還可以選擇安裝KDE 4 build dependencies:所有你需要安裝的套件包要從 KDE 4.3 原始碼編譯(專家級)。

Susemini.png
Version:
11.1
Kde4-ymp.png

發人員還可以選擇安裝KDE 4 build dependencies:所有你需要安裝的套件包要從 KDE 4.3 原始碼編譯(專家級)。

Susemini.png
Version:
11.0
Kde4-ymp.png

發人員還可以選擇安裝KDE 4 build dependencies:所有你需要安裝的套件包要從 KDE 4.3 原始碼編譯(專家級)。

Factory KDE 專案(KDE 4.4)

KDE:KDE4:Factory:Desktop Build Service 專案提供目前開發中的 KDE 4.x 套件,因為他們正在為 openSUSE 11.3 開發。這些是來自 KDE 專案的發布和 openSUSE 補丁。他們多數可能不穩定,並且有bugs。反饋是高度讚賞。特別是測試復原穩定套件庫是推薦的。

To minimize the risk, you should not update as soon as there is a new build available but only if you encounter some bug and know that there is a fix in the new build.

點擊其中一個One Click Install 來安裝所需的套件包和加入套件庫。如果你遇到依賴不能得到解決的訊息,請聽從KDE/Upgrade的指示。

Susemini.png
Version:
11.2
Kde4-ymp.png

或者你可以選擇安裝一個更基本的 KDE 4 桌面。開發人員還可以選擇安裝KDE 4 build dependencies:所有你需要安裝的套件包要從 KDE 4.4 原始碼編譯(專家級)。

Susemini.png
Version:
11.1
Kde4-ymp.png

或者你可以選擇安裝一個更基本的 KDE 4 桌面。開發人員還可以選擇安裝KDE 4 build dependencies:所有你需要安裝的套件包要從 KDE 4.4 原始碼編譯(專家級)。

Susemini.png
Version:
11.0
Kde4-ymp.png

或者你可以選擇安裝一個更基本的 KDE 4 桌面。開發人員還可以選擇安裝KDE 4 build dependencies:所有你需要安裝的套件包要從 KDE 4.4 原始碼編譯(專家級)。

Susemini.png
Version:
Factory
Kde4-ymp.png

或者你可以選擇安裝一個更基本的 KDE 4 桌面。開發人員還可以選擇安裝KDE 4 build dependencies:所有你需要安裝的套件包要從 KDE 4.4 原始碼編譯(專家級)。

不穩定 KDE 專案 (每周 Trunk 快照)

KDE:KDE4:UNSTABLE:Desktop Build Service 專案包含不穩定 KDE 開發快照。反饋是更加的針對上游。這些套件包提供被認為是實驗性和 bleeding edge 的 KDE trunk 快照。No time will be spent on fixing builds/bugs or helping with problems.

啟動 KDE 4

If you're a KDE 3 user installing KDE 4 for the first time, this is how you start KDE 4. After installing the packages, your login manager now contains a "KDE 4" session to login to a full KDE 4 session. So if you have autologin enabled, you have to logout and choose the new session type from the Session Types menu.

從原始碼編譯

To compile KDE 4 from source code, follow KDE/Developing/Guide.

性能問題

KDE 4 is the first Free desktop environment to make use of advanced features such as compositing, alpha blending and scalable graphics at the core of the desktop, as opposed to only using a compositing window manager to apply 3D effects to traditional windows and desktop furniture. This has exposed a number of performance problems in video drivers and other Linux graphics subsystems. A year after the initial KDE 4 release, the situation has improved greatly, but the following resources may be useful to find the best drivers and settings for your hardware:

  • KDE Graphics Performance Tips
  • KWin 4.0 Release Notes
  • There seems to be an issue with the fglrx driver and KDE4, which causes windows to be painted/repainted very slow on KDE4, while this does not occur on KDE3. It doesn't matter if compositing effects are turned on or off in KDE4. Using the free radeon or radeonhd drivers seems not to cause such performance problems. You may have to blacklist the 'fglrx' driver in /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist, to prevent it from being loaded automatically on bootup. If you change your xorg.conf to use the radeon or radeonhd driver, but the fglrx module is still loaded (even if it is no used) you might encounter those performance problems in KDE4.
  • But also be aware without the performance provided by the fglrx driver, compositing may shut down on its own due to "insufficient resources" when using cube rotation with the radeon or radeonhd driver. When this occurs, you will receive a dialog box telling you what has happened. Bottom line, a solutions needs to be found to enable ati cards to successfully run the fglrx driver to avoid problems with compositing in kde4.

最惱人的Bugs、疑難排解

Please note that some issues may be resolved already. Check for system updates first.
For more information, check the KDE Bug Tracking system; the most hated bugs and the most severe bugs

Corrupted desktop

When updating from KDE 4.0 or 4.1 to 4.2 the desktop, i.e. panel etc. can get corrupted. If this happens you have to reset the plasma configuration to its defaults. This will cause the loss of all customisation you did with the desktop and its panels.

Open a konsole and execute the folowing commands as user:

kquitapp plasma
rm ~/.kde4/share/config/plasma*
plasma

If you are using KDE 4.3 you have to replace plasma by plasma-desktop. The correct plasma restart on KDE 4.3 is:

kbuildsycoca4
kquitapp plasma-desktop >/dev/null 2>&1
kstart plasma-desktop & >/dev/null 2>&1

If the corruption prevents you from accessing the panel, you can use ALT+F2 and start konsole from there.

音效

If sound does not work, e.g. in amarok, check that you have all needed codecs installed. You can use the one-click install on opensuse-community.org.

Package dependency issues

If you get package dependency issues when trying to update, make sure that your KDE repos have a higher priority, i.e. lower number, than e.g. your oss or update repo. Use zypper dup to update which will remove obsolete packages and install those that replace them.

Some packages from KDE 4.0 or 4.1 might not exist anymore in KDE > 4.2, in that case you have to remove them. Talk:KDE/KDE4 might give you some hints.

Further, if you have applications installed, such as koffice2 that are not part of KDE:Factory/42/UNSTABLE but of the Playground or Community repos, you have to add the corresponding repos before you try to update via one-click. Otherwise e.g. koffice will require an older version of KDE than the one you want to upgrade to and cause a dependency issue.

YaST Hangs

There is a problem starting YaST with the new Qt/KDE if you don't have a login shell as root (in other words, if you do "su" instead of "su -" for example). The symptom is that YaST does not show any Qt UI (note the control center works, just launching any YaST module hangs).

The problem seems to be that it wants to contact the user dbus instance, but doesn't have permissions for it. If you get a login shell as root, it won't try to do that, and then everything works.

openSUSE 發布的KDE 4 版本

  • openSUSE 11.2 includes KDE 4.3.1 packages which will be updated to 4.3.4 via an offical update.
  • openSUSE 11.1 包含 KDE 4.1.3 套件。
  • openSUSE 11.0 包含 KDE 4.0.4 套件。
  • openSUSE 10.3: The openSUSE 10.3 CD and DVD and default repositories were released containing a preview of KDE 4. At that time, the KDE Team worked on the base technologies of KDE 4. openSUSE 10.3 included a KDE3 desktop with single KDE4 application.
  • openSUSE Factory currently contains the KDE 4.4 development packages (identical to KDE:KDE4:Factory:Desktop).

套件命名

The packaging of KDE 4 is more fine-grained than with KDE 3. Applications are packaged individually and named using the form kde4-<appname>; the kde4- prefix is to avoid confusion with the KDE3 equivalent. The module packages, i.e. kdenetwork4, kdepim4, etc (with the exception of kdelibs4 and kdebase4) are usually empty and exist only because of the corresponding debuginfo packages. By installing them, all subpackages derived from them containing the actual applications are installed.

另見